python – Single Line Nested For Loops

python – Single Line Nested For Loops

The best source of information is the official Python tutorial on list comprehensions. List comprehensions are nearly the same as for loops (certainly any list comprehension can be written as a for-loop) but they are often faster than using a for loop.

Look at this longer list comprehension from the tutorial (the if part filters the comprehension, only parts that pass the if statement are passed into the final part of the list comprehension (here (x,y)):

>>> [(x, y) for x in [1,2,3] for y in [3,1,4] if x != y]
[(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 1), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 4)]

Its exactly the same as this nested for loop (and, as the tutorial says, note how the order of for and if are the same).

>>> combs = []
>>> for x in [1,2,3]:
...     for y in [3,1,4]:
...         if x != y:
...             combs.append((x, y))
>>> combs
[(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 1), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 4)]

The major difference between a list comprehension and a for loop is that the final part of the for loop (where you do something) comes at the beginning rather than at the end.

On to your questions:

What type must object be in order to use this for loop structure?

An iterable. Any object that can generate a (finite) set of elements. These include any container, lists, sets, generators, etc.

What is the order in which i and j are assigned to elements in object?

They are assigned in exactly the same order as they are generated from each list, as if they were in a nested for loop (for your first comprehension youd get 1 element for i, then every value from j, 2nd element into i, then every value from j, etc.)

Can it be simulated by a different for loop structure?

Yes, already shown above.

Can this for loop be nested with a similar or different structure for loop? And how would it look?

Sure, but its not a great idea. Here, for example, gives you a list of lists of characters:

[[ch for ch in word] for word in (apple, banana, pear, the, hello)]

You might be interested in itertools.product, which returns an iterable yielding tuples of values from all the iterables you pass it. That is, itertools.product(A, B) yields all values of the form (a, b), where the a values come from A and the b values come from B. For example:

import itertools

A = [50, 60, 70]
B = [0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4]

print [a + b for a, b in itertools.product(A, B)]

This prints:

[50.1, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 60.1, 60.2, 60.3, 60.4, 70.1, 70.2, 70.3, 70.4]

Notice how the final argument passed to itertools.product is the inner one. Generally, itertools.product(a0, a1, ... an) is equal to [(i0, i1, ... in) for in in an for in-1 in an-1 ... for i0 in a0]

python – Single Line Nested For Loops

First of all, your first code doesnt use a for loop per se, but a list comprehension.

  1. Would be equivalent to

    for j in range(0, width):
    for i in range(0, height):

  2. Much the same way, it generally nests like for loops, right to left. But list comprehension syntax is more complex.

  3. Im not sure what this question is asking

  1. Any iterable object that yields iterable objects that yield exactly two objects (what a mouthful – i.e [(1,2),ab] would be valid )

  2. The order in which the object yields upon iteration. i goes to the first yield, j the second.

  3. Yes, but not as pretty. I believe it is functionally equivalent to:

    l = list()
    for i,j in object:

    or even better use map:

    map(function, object)

    But of course function would have to get i, j itself.

  4. Isnt this the same question as 3?

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