Python Implementation of Viterbi Algorithm

Python Implementation of Viterbi Algorithm

Heres mine. Its paraphrased directly from the psuedocode implemenation from wikipedia. It uses numpy for conveince of their ndarray but is otherwise a pure python3 implementation.

import numpy as np

def viterbi(y, A, B, Pi=None):
    Return the MAP estimate of state trajectory of Hidden Markov Model.

    y : array (T,)
        Observation state sequence. int dtype.
    A : array (K, K)
        State transition matrix. See HiddenMarkovModel.state_transition  for
    B : array (K, M)
        Emission matrix. See HiddenMarkovModel.emission for details.
    Pi: optional, (K,)
        Initial state probabilities: Pi[i] is the probability x[0] == i. If
        None, uniform initial distribution is assumed (Pi[:] == 1/K).

    x : array (T,)
        Maximum a posteriori probability estimate of hidden state trajectory,
        conditioned on observation sequence y under the model parameters A, B,
    T1: array (K, T)
        the probability of the most likely path so far
    T2: array (K, T)
        the x_j-1 of the most likely path so far
    # Cardinality of the state space
    K = A.shape[0]
    # Initialize the priors with default (uniform dist) if not given by caller
    Pi = Pi if Pi is not None else np.full(K, 1 / K)
    T = len(y)
    T1 = np.empty((K, T), d)
    T2 = np.empty((K, T), B)

    # Initilaize the tracking tables from first observation
    T1[:, 0] = Pi * B[:, y[0]]
    T2[:, 0] = 0

    # Iterate throught the observations updating the tracking tables
    for i in range(1, T):
        T1[:, i] = np.max(T1[:, i - 1] * A.T * B[np.newaxis, :, y[i]].T, 1)
        T2[:, i] = np.argmax(T1[:, i - 1] * A.T, 1)

    # Build the output, optimal model trajectory
    x = np.empty(T, B)
    x[-1] = np.argmax(T1[:, T - 1])
    for i in reversed(range(1, T)):
        x[i - 1] = T2[x[i], i]

    return x, T1, T2

I found the following code in the example repository of Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Is something like this what youre looking for?

def viterbi_segment(text, P):
    Find the best segmentation of the string of characters, given the
    UnigramTextModel P.
    # best[i] = best probability for text[0:i]
    # words[i] = best word ending at position i
    n = len(text)
    words = [] + list(text)
    best = [1.0] + [0.0] * n
    ## Fill in the vectors best, words via dynamic programming
    for i in range(n+1):
        for j in range(0, i):
            w = text[j:i]
            if P[w] * best[i - len(w)] >= best[i]:
                best[i] = P[w] * best[i - len(w)]
                words[i] = w
    ## Now recover the sequence of best words
    sequence = []; i = len(words)-1
    while i > 0:
        sequence[0:0] = [words[i]]
        i = i - len(words[i])
    ## Return sequence of best words and overall probability
    return sequence, best[-1]

Python Implementation of Viterbi Algorithm

Hmm I can post mine. Its not pretty though, please let me know if you need clarification. I wrote this relatively recently for specifically part of speech tagging.

class Trellis:
    trell = []
    def __init__(self, hmm, words):
        self.trell = []
        temp = {}
        for label in hmm.labels:
           temp[label] = [0,None]
        for word in words:

    def fill_in(self,hmm):
        for i in range(len(self.trell)):
            for token in self.trell[i][1]:
                word = self.trell[i][0]
                if i == 0:
                    self.trell[i][1][token][0] = hmm.e(token,word)
                    max = None
                    guess = None
                    c = None
                    for k in self.trell[i-1][1]:
                        c = self.trell[i-1][1][k][0] + hmm.t(k,token)
                        if max == None or c > max:
                            max = c
                            guess = k
                    max += hmm.e(token,word)
                    self.trell[i][1][token][0] = max
                    self.trell[i][1][token][1] = guess

    def return_max(self):
        tokens = []
        token = None
        for i in range(len(self.trell)-1,-1,-1):
            if token == None:
                max = None
                guess = None
                for k in self.trell[i][1]:
                    if max == None or self.trell[i][1][k][0] > max:
                        max = self.trell[i][1][k][0]
                        token = self.trell[i][1][k][1]
                        guess = k
                token = self.trell[i][1][token][1]
        return tokens

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *